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世界煤炭形势

摘 要 回顾了世界煤矿的发展过程,全面介绍了采煤方法及其配套设备的研究内容和成果,通过对施工技术的完善、提高和推广,施工取得了快速、优质、经济的效果。
关键词 立井 凿井技术 快速施工 混合作业法 施工设备
1. 采场围岩控制技术
(1)进一步完善采场围岩控制理论。以科学合理、优化高效的岩层控制技术来保证开采活动的安全、高效、低成本为目标,深入总结我国几十年的矿山压力研究成果,以理论分析(解析法)、现代数学力学(统计分析预测、数值法)和实测法相结合运用先进的计算机技术,深入研究各种煤层地质及开采条件,如急倾斜、大采高、大采深采场矿山压力显现规律及围岩 破坏与平衡机理,不断完善采场围岩控制技术。
(2)研究坚硬顶板与破碎顶板条件下应用高技术低成本岩层控制技术。 目前,由于应用高压注水、深孔预裂爆破处理坚硬顶板和应用化学加固技术存在工艺复杂、成本高的问题, 因而需进一步研究开发新技术、新工艺、新材料来解决这些问题。
(3)放顶煤开采岩层和支架-围岩相互作用机理。研究放顶煤开采力学模型、围岩应力、顶煤破碎机理、支架-顶煤-直接顶-基本顶相互作用关系;运用离散元等方法研究顶煤放落 规律,提出放煤优化准则和提高顶煤回收率的途径。
(4)支护质量与顶板动态监测技术。在总结缓倾斜中厚长壁工作面开展支护质量与顶板动态监测方面,应进一步在坚硬顶板、破碎顶板、急倾斜、放顶煤工作面开展支护质量与顶板动态监测,同时应不断完善现有的监测技术,发展智能化监测系统,改进监测仪表,使监测仪表向直观、轻便、小型化方向发展。
(5)冲击地压的预测和防治。通过计算机模拟研究冲击性矿压显现发生的机理;进一步完善冲击性矿压显现监测系统,发展遥控测量和预报技术,完善冲击性矿压综合防治措施的优化 选择专家系统。
(6)研究开发新型的支护设备。研究硬煤层、硬顶板放顶煤液压支架,完善液压支架性能和 快速移架系统,开发耐炮崩、轻型化单体液压支柱和厚煤层巷道锚索和可伸缩锚杆。
①.缓倾斜薄煤层长壁开采。主要研究开发:体积小、功率大、高可靠性的薄煤层采煤机、刨煤机;研制适合刨煤机综采的液压支架;研究开发薄煤层工作面的总体配套技术和高效开采技术。
②缓倾斜厚煤层一次采全厚大采高长壁综采。应进一步加强完善支架结构及强度,加强支架防倒、防滑、防止顶梁焊缝开裂和四连杆变形、防止严重损坏千斤顶措施等的研究,提高支架的可靠性,缩小其与中厚煤层(采高3m左右)高产高效指标的差距。
③采煤方法和工艺的进步和完善始终是采矿学科发展的主题。采煤工艺的发展将带动煤炭开采各环节的变革,现代采煤工艺的发展方向是高产、高效、高安全性和高可靠性,基本途径是使采煤技术与现代高新技术相结合,研究开发强力、高效、安全、可靠、耐用、智能化的采煤设备和生产监控系统,改进和完善采煤工艺。在发展现代采煤工艺的同时,继续发展多层次、多样化的采煤工艺,建立具有中国特色的采煤工艺理论。我国长壁采煤方法已趋成熟, 放顶煤采煤的应用在不断扩展,应用水平和理论研究的深度和广度都在不断提高,急倾斜、 不稳定、地质构造复杂等难采煤层采煤方法和工艺的研究有很大空间,主要方向是改善作业 条件,提高单产和机械化水平。开发煤矿高效集约化生产技术、建设生产高度集中、高可靠性的高产高效矿井开采技术。以提高工作面单产和生产集中化为核心,以提高效率和经济效益为目标,研究开发各种条件下 的高效能、高可靠性的采煤装备和工艺,简单、高效、可靠的生产系统和开采布置,生产过程监控与科学管理等相互配套的成套开采技术,发展各种矿井煤层条件下的采煤机械化,进一步改进工艺和装备,提高应用水平和扩大应用范围,提高采煤机械化的程度和水平。
④开发“浅埋深、硬顶板、硬煤层高产高效现代开采成套技术”,主要解决以下技术难题。硬顶板控制技术,研究埋深浅、地压小的硬厚顶板控制技术,主要通过岩层定向水力压裂、倾斜深孔爆破等顶板快速处理技术,使直接顶能随采随冒,提高顶煤回收率,且基本顶能按一定步距垮落,既有利于顶煤破碎,又保证工作面的安全生产。硬厚顶煤控制技术,研究开发埋深浅、支承压力小条件硬厚顶煤的快速处理技术,包括高压注水压裂技术和顶煤深孔预爆破处理技术,使顶煤体能随采随冒,提高其回收率。顶煤冒放性差、块度大的综放开采成套设备配套技术,研制既有利于顶煤破碎和顶板控制,又有利于放顶煤的新型液压支架,合理确定后部输送机能力。两硬条件下放顶煤开采快速推进技术,研究合适的综放开采回采工艺,优化工序,缩短放煤时间,提高工作面的推进度,实现高产高效。5~5.5m宽煤巷锚杆支护技术,通过宽煤巷锚杆支护技术的研究开发和应用,有利于综采配套设备的大功率和重型化,有助于连续采煤机 的应用,促进工作面的高产高效。
⑤各种综采高产高效综采设备保障系统。要实现高产高效,就要提高开机率,对“支架 -围岩”系统、采运设备进行监控。今后研究的重点是:通过电液控制阀组操纵支架和改善“支架-围岩”系统控制,进一步完善液压信息、支架位态、顶板状态、支护质量信息的自动采集系统;乳化液泵站及液压系统运行状态的检测诊断;采煤机在线与离线相结合的“油 -磨屑”监测和温度、电信号的监测;带式输送机、刮板输送机全面状态监控。
2 深矿井开采技术
深矿井开采的关键技术是:煤层开采的矿压控制、冲击地压防治、瓦斯和热害治理及深井通 风、井巷布置等;需要攻关研究的是:深井围岩状态和应力场及分布状态的特征;深井作业场所工作环境的变化;深井巷道(特别是软岩巷道)快速掘进与支护技术与装备;深井冲击地压防治技术与监测监控技术;深矿井高产高效开采有关配套技术;深矿井开采热害治理技术 与装备。
3“三下”采煤技术
提高数值模拟计算和相似材料模拟等,深入研究开采上覆岩层运动和地表沉陷规律,研究满足地表、建筑物、地下水资源保护需要的合理的开采系统和优化参数,发展沉降控制理论和关键技术,包括用地表废料向垮落法工作面采空区充填的系统;研究与应用各种充填技术和组合充填技术,村庄房屋加固改造重建技术,适于村庄保护的开采技术;研究近水体开采的开采设计、工艺参数优化和装备,提出煤炭开采与煤矿城市和谐统一的开采沉陷控制、开采 村庄下压煤、土地复垦和矿井水资源化等关键技术。
4 优化巷道布置,减少矸石排放的开采技术
改进、完善现有采煤方法和开采布置, 以实现开采效益最大化为目标,研究开发煤矿地质条件开采巷道布置及工艺技术评价体系专家系统,实现开采方法、开采布置与煤层地质条件 的最优匹配。总结推广神华集团大柳塔矿、潞安漳村矿实行全煤巷布置单一煤层开采,矸石基本不运出地面,生产系统大大简化,分别实现无轨胶轮、单轨吊辅助运输一条龙,从井口直达工作面, 同时实现了综采与综掘同步发展,生产效率大幅提高的经验的同时,重点研究高产高效矿井开拓部署与巷道布置系统的优化,简化巷道布置,优化采区及工作面参数,研究单一煤层集中开拓,集中准备、集中回采的关键技术,大幅度降低岩巷掘进率,多开煤巷,减少出矸率;研究矸石在井下直接处理、作为充填材料的技术,既是减少污染的一项有力措施,又简化 了生产系统,有利于高产高效集中化开采,应加紧研究。
5 小煤矿技术改造和机械化开采技术
实施国家关闭小煤矿,淘汰落后生产技术和生产设备,提高平均单井规模的技术政策,开发小型煤矿机械化、半机械化开采技术和装备,改进小煤矿的采煤方法和开采工艺,提高采煤工作面的单产和工效;提高小煤矿的顶底板控制技术水平,最大限度地减少顶底板事故率。
6 煤炭地下气化技术
煤炭地下气化技术是将处于地下的煤炭进行有控制的燃烧,通过对煤的热化学作用而产生可燃气体的过程。煤炭地下气化技术属于一种特殊的采煤方法,它属国际首创。煤炭地下气化技术具有投资少、工期短、见效快、用人少、效率高、成本低、效益好等优点,尤其适合我国煤矿地质条件复杂、劣质煤比例高、“三下”压煤严重的具体国情,具有广阔的推广应用前景。应继续研究完善“长通道、大断面、两阶段”和“矿井式气化”两种典型煤炭地下气化工艺,进行较大规模的地下气化试验研究,摸索实现“两个控制、三个稳定”的技术途径,并实现连续、稳定生产探索应用的途径。
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英文
the development of the coal mine
Abstract Recalling our operations in coal mine of the development process, comprehensive presentation of a short driving and masonry mixed law and its supporting equipment research and findings,Well antagonism through rapid construction techniques improve, enhance and promote the construction of shaft over the rapid, high-quality, and the economy.
Keywords Shaft Sinking Fast mixed construction method for construction equipment
1.Adopt the field round the rock control technique
(1)It is further perfect to adopt the field rounds the rock the control the theories.With the reasonable and excellent rock strata turning efficiently in science controls the technique to the safety that assurance mine the activity, efficiently, low cost for target, go deep into the mineral mountain pressure research result that tally up several decades of our countries, analyze( analyze method) with the theories, modern mathematics mechanics( statistics analysis estimate, number method) with solid measure the calculator technique that method combine together application forerunner, thorough research every kind of coal seam geology and mine the term, such as the nasty inclination, big adopt the high and big adopting deep adopt a mineral mountain pressure present the regulation and round the rock breaks and equilibrium mechanism, continuously perfect adopt the field round the rock control technique.
(2)Research the strong and tough a plank is next with broken up a lath piece to apply the low cost rock strata in high technique the control the technique. Current, because of applying the high pressure notes the water, deep bore prepares the blows up to handle strong and tough a plank with apply the chemistry reinforces the technique exsits craft complicacy, high problem in cost, as a result need the further research develop the new technique, new craft, new material to resolve these problemses.
(3)Putting a coal mines the rock strata with the a- round the rock interaction mechanism.The research puts a coal mine the mechanics model and round the rock in response to the dint, crest coal broken up mechanism,- a coal- direct crest- basic an interaction relation;Making use of long-lost an etc. method research a coal puts to fall the regulation, putting forward to put the coal the excellent turning the standard with a coal that increases the path recovers the rate.
(4)A quantity monitors with crest plank development technique.In tally up tilt to one side the thick long wall works opens the exhibition a quantity monitors with crest plank development aspect, should be further at the strong and tough a plank, fall in pieces a plank, nasty inclination and put a coal the work open the exhibition a quantity monitors with crest plank development, at the same time should continuously perfect monitors currently technique, develop the in telligence turns to monitor system, improvement monitor appearance, make monitors gauge face keep the view, easy and convenient, small scaled turn the direction development.
(5)Pound at an estimate for pressing with the prevention and cure.Passing the calculator emulation research impact mineral presses the mechanism that present the occurrence;Further over pound at well the sex mineral presses to present to monitor system, the development controls from a distance the diagraph with forecast the technique, the perfect impact mineral presses to synthesize the prevention and cure measure excellent to turn to choose the expert system.
(6)The research develops the new a equipments.Hard coal seam in research, the hard a plank puts a coal liquid presses a, the perfect liquid presses a function with move a system quickly, the development bears the firecrackers collapses, light turn the single body fluid press a pillar with the thick coal seam tunnel anchor man  with flexible anchor man pole.
2.  Adopt the coal method with the craft
①The long wall in thin coal seam in inclination in mines.Main research development:The eclipse stirs up to chew th Research to manufacture coal machine that suiting and planing the liquid adopts to press a; The research develops the total kit technique that thin coal seam work with mine the technique efficiently
(2)he tilts to one side the thick coal seam an adopting all and thick and big adopt the high and long wall adopt.Should further enhance perfect a construction and strengths, enhance a research for defends to pour, antiskidly, keeping a beam from sewing to open the with fourth connecting the pole transform, prevent serious ly damaging the jack measure wait, exaltation a margin for of dependable, contracting its with thick coal seam( adopt the high 3 ms is or so) in inside highly producing efficiently index sign.
(3)Adopt the coal method with the advance of the craft and perfect the alpha and omega is a topic that mine for minerals course's development.Development that adopt the coal craft will arouse the coal mines each link replaces, modern adopt the development direction of the coal craft is a high producing, efficiently, high safety with high and dependable, the basic path is to makes adopt the coal technique combine together with high and new technique in modern, studying to develop the strong dint, efficiently, safety, dependable, enduring, the intelligence turn of adopt the coal equipments with produce to supervise and control the system, improve with perfect adopt the coal craft.At develop modern adopt the coal craft at the same time, continue development many level of structure, adopt the coal craft diversification, establish to have China to adopt the coal craft theories characteristicly.The development coal mine is efficiently intensive to turn the production technique, developments the production the high degree concentrates, high and dependable and sexual and high produce efficiently the mineral well mines the technique.To increase the work is single to produce with produce concentration change into the core, then lift high-efficiency with economic performance for target, study high performance that develop every kind of term's bottom, high and dependable adopt the coal the material sexually with craft, simple, efficiently, dependable production system with mine to arrange, the production line supervise and control to manage with science etc. mutually kit of the set mines the technique, developping every kind of mineral well coal seam term descend of adopt the coal mechanizes, further improving the craft with equip, increases to apply the level with extend the application, increase degree that adopt coal's mechanization with level.
(4) The " shallow is be the deep and hard a plank, hard coal seam is high to produce efficiently modern mine a technique" of development, main solution below technique hard nut to crack.Hard a plank control technique, study the  deep shallow, a safe production for pressing small hard and thick a plank control technique, primarily passing rock strata definite direction water power pressing , tilting to one side deep bore blowing up waiting first crest the plank dispatches the technique, making directly crest can with adopting with the tip , exaltation a coal recovery rate, and the basic crest can press the certain step is apart from the falls, since benefit to a coal broken uply, guaranteeing the work again.Hard and thick a coal control technique, the research development is deep shallow, accepts the hard and thick crest in small term in pressure dispatches the technique coalyly, including the high pressure notes the water pressure technique to prepares to blow up to handle with the deep bore in a coal technique, make a coal physique with adopt with the increase its recovery rate。Two hard terms descend to put a propulsion for the coal mines the fleetness propulsion technique, studying fit releasing adopting returning adopting craft, excellent chemical engineering preface, shortenning putting coal time, increasing work degree, realize the high producing is efficiently.5 ~ a breadth coal lane anchor man pole a technique, pass the technical research in pole in anchor man in lane in coal in breadth the development and application, benefit to the big power that adopt the kit equipments to turn with heavy type, is beneficial to the application that consecution adopt the coal the machine, promote the work high to produce efficiently.
(5) every kind of adopts the high producing efficiently the adopts the equipments guarantees system.Toing realizes high producing is efficiently, will increase to open the probability, to" a- round the rock" system, adopt to carry the equipments proceed to supervise and control.From now on the point that study is:Pass to give or get an electric shock the liquid control valve set manipulate a with improve" a- round the rock" the system controls, the further perfect liquid presses the information,the crest plank appearance, quantity information of collect the system automatically;Emulsifying the liquid pump stands and the liquid presses the examination diagnosis that system circulate appearance;Adopt the coal machine on-line and off-line combine together of" oil- whet the scraps" monitors to monitors with the temperature, telecommunication number;The take type transports the machine and pare off the plank transport the machine the appearance to supervise and control completely.
he deep mineral well mines the technique
Key technique that deep mineral well mine is:The mineral that coal seam mine presses the control and pound at the ground presses the prevention and cure, gas to harm to manage with the heat and the deep well is well ventilated, the well lane arranges etc.;Needing to offend pass investigative is: The deep well rounds the rock appearance with should dint a characteristic for and distributing appearance; The variety of the deep well homework place work environment; The deep well tunnel( especially soft rock tunnel) digs into quickly with a technique and material; The deep well impact ground presses the prevention and cure technique with monitors to supervise and control the technique; The deep mineral well is high to produce to mine the relevant kit technique efficiently; The deep mineral well mines the heat harms to manage the technique and material.
3 " three times" adopt the coal technique
The exaltation number imitates the calculation with resembles material imitate etc., Thorough the research mine the rock strata of exercise to sink to sink the regulation with earth's surface, studying satisfy the earth's surface, building, groundwater resources protects the reasonable of the demand mines the system with excellent turn the parameter, develop to sink to decline to control the theories with key technique, include to use the earth's surface waste fall to method work adopts the system that get empty area fill; Research and applied every kind of fills the technique with combine the fills the technique, the village house reinforces to reform reconstruction technique, be suitable for the village to mine the technique protectively; Studying the near of water mines of mine the design, craft parameter the excellent turning with equip, put forward the coal mine to harmonize to unify with the coal mine city of mine to sink to sink the control and mine the village descend press the coal, land replies the with mineral well water recycling etc. Key technique.4 Excellent turn the tunnel arrange, reducing the exhaust of mine the technique.
Improvement, perfect and current adopt the coal method with mine to arrange, to realize to mine the performance the biggest changing into the target, the research develops the coal mine geology term mines the tunnel arranges and the craft technique evaluates the system expert system, realizing to mine the method and mine to arrange with coal seam geology term of superior match.The summary expands the peaceful in mineral in tower in big in group in absolute being village mineral practices the whole coal lane arranges the one coal seam mines, basic do not deliver the ground, produce the system to simplify consu medly, realizes to have no the gum respectively round, single track mourn the assistance transports a dragon, from the mouth of a well go directly to the work, realizes at the same time the  adopts to dig with the synchronous development, producing the efficiency increases significantly of empirical at the same time, point research high produce efficiently the mineral well expands to deploy to arrange with tunnel the system of excellent turn, simplify the tunnel arranges, excellent turn to adopt the area and work the parameter, study the one coal seam concentrates to expand, concentrating preparation, concentrates to return to the key technique that adopt, significant lower the rock lane digs into the rate, openning coal lane more, reducing the rate of the stones to under the well handles directly, the conduct and actions fills the technique of the material, since is to reduce contaminative an emollient measure, simplifying the production system again, benefitting to the high producing to concentrates to turn to mine efficiently, shoulding step up the research.
4. The small coal mine technique reforms with mechanize to mine the technique
Put the nation closes the small coal mine, eliminating to fall behind the production technique with produce the equipments, increasing into practice the technique policy of the average and single well scale, develop the small scaled coal mine the mechanization, half the mechanization mine the technique with equip, improving the small coal mine adopts the coal method with mine the craft, increase to adopt coal work of single produce with work effect;A scaleboard of the small coal mine in exaltation controls the technique level, the biggest limit ground reduces a scaleboard trouble rate.
5.The coal underground gasifies the technique
The coal underground gasification technique is to will be placed in the underground coal proceed to have the combustion of the control, passing to the coaly and hot chemical effect but produce the combustible and gaseous process.The coal underground gasification technique belongs to a kind of adopting the coal method specially, it belong to nations found.The coal underground gasification technique has the investment little, the work period is short and take effect quick, use the person little, the efficiency is high, the cost is low, good etc. in performance advantage, particularly in keeping with our country coal mine geology term complicacy, the inferior coal comparison is high," three times" press the coal the concrete state of the nation seriously, have vast expansion application foreground.Should continue to study perfect" grow the passage, big cross section, two stages" with" mineral well type the gasification" two kinds of typical models coal underground gasify craft, proceed the large-scale underground gasify the on trial research, grope for the technique path that realizes the " two controls, three stability", and realizes consecution, stabilize to produce the applied path in quest.
References
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minerals in the Animas River watershed as determined by
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